The energy industry publishes a near constant stream of thought provoking papers on green energy, energy storage, renewables—along with ongoing developments, research, current trends and more. To help keep building professionals on the pulse of the industry, we’ve curated some of the best papers we’ve seen and collected them here.
Written in 1985, this early article on thermal storage cites the humble beginnings of leveling air conditioning loads and storing cooling during off-peak hours.
Are you in California? Is it time to replace your cooling system or install a new one? If you answered yes to both questions read about California's Permanent Load Shift Program. Incentives of $875 per KW shifted from the peak electric period are available for a limited time.
The world's need to reduce its carbon emissions by reducing, in part, its dependence on fossil fuel, will completely change the make up of our electric delivery system. The reason is simple fossil fuels are not just forms of energy; they are forms of stored energy. Coal is not hot until you light it. If we plan to replace fossil fuels with other forms of energy, such as wind power or solar, then we also need to replace the storage characteristic of fossil fuels.
Using thermal energy storage has shifted gigawatts of power off of daytime peaks in a cost-effective manner. However, thermal energy storage (TES) market penetration is small in comparison to its potential. Why?
In numerous studies, it has been proven that electricity is produced and delivered much more efficiently during off-peak hours than during on-peak periods. For every kilowatt-hour of energy that is shifted from on-peak usage to off-peak, there is a reduction in the source fuel needed to generate it. While the exact amount of savings varies, studies show a range from 8 to 30 percent for two of the major utilities studied. The reduction in source fuel normally results in a reduction of greenhouse-gas emissions produced by the power plant.
Until recently, demand charges have been over looked on bills. Many facilities professionals have focused on reducing their costs by cutting kilowat-hours (kWh) consumption, but now that managers can reduce the demand charge, that mindset is changing. This article will present a summary of the challenges and a unique "Free Lunch" algorithm designed to lower utility demand charges in buildings with control systems.
Discover how thermal energy storage works and the variations of this energy-efficient model that are becoming increasingly popular as electrical demand and cost continue to rise.
Commerical cooling is a major contributor to peak power demand, but it also represents on of the few areas where load management methods are practical, cost-effective and proven. A well designed thermal storage system will effective and efficiently reduce electrical demand, exploit time-of-day rates and remain totally transparent to a building's occupants.
Similar to the Black Friday sales, most electric utilities oἀer discounts every night for commercial customers, but can all HVAC systems take advantage of such sales? Using electricity at night oἀers savings to build-ing owners in the form of a demand charge reduction (dollars per kilowatt), cheaper energy, or both, but the building must have the ability to “go” to the sale.
Most people probably don't think about air-conditioners when they think about factors contributing to pollution. However, commerical and residential buildings can consume 72% of electricity during the day- most of which goes to the energy spent on heating and cooling these spaces and their occupants.
Designers of buildings and cooling systems must recognize how using and purchasing energy from the smart grid will change their practices accordingly. How much and when electricity is used is changing and building owners must understand that a little more investment in the life cycle cost and design stage can pay big dividends later.
Energy storage has been called the ‘holy grail’ of the electric power system. Currently, grid operators struggle to balance supply and demand in real time, which causes a host of problems:Grid-scale energy storage systems respond quickly to these imbalances, shaping and shifting energy to when it is needed most.
Thermal energy storage (TES) has been widely used in the commercial sector since the 1980s to shift HVAC cooling load out of the peak demand period of the day. By charing a chilled water or ice-based TES system overnight, facility can take advantageof off-peak electricity prices and reduce any chargs based on peak demand.
Ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) systems consume less purchased energy than an HVAC system using ofssil fuel and elctricity directly for heating and cooling. However, the cost of building the ground heat exchanger (GHX) often prevents acceptance of GBHP systems.